Flounder Biology


SpeciesRhombosolea tapirina
Common NameGreenback Flounder
HabitatSheltered sand, silt and mud substrates in estuaries and coastal waters
Depth0 – 100 m (Edgar, 2008)
DistributionSouthern Western Australia to southern New South Wales, around Tasmania, also New Zealand (Edgar, 2008)
DietPolychaetes and benthic crustaceans (Edgar, 2008; Ferguson, 2006)
Stock StructureSeveral genetically distinct stocks in Australia: west coast Tasmania, east coast Tasmania, Victoria (van den Enden et al., 2000)
M (Natural Mortality)0.85 (for populations in New Zealand) (Sutton et al., 2010)
Maximum Age (years)10 (Sutton et al., 2010)
Maximum Length (total length; cm)45 (Edgar, 2008; Kailola et al., 1993)
Maximum Weight (g)600 (Edgar, 2008; Kailola et al., 1993)
Female K (von Bertalanffy growth parameter)0.26
Male K (von Bertalanffy growth parameter)0.24
Female t0 (age (years) when length = 0)-1.06
Male t0 (age (years) when length = 0)-1.32
Female L∞ (asymptotic von Bertalanffy length (total length; cm))55.82
Male L∞ (asymptotic von Bertalanffy length (total length; cm))52.21
Length (L; tail length (cm))– Weight (W; g) RelationshipW=0.036 L^2.7 (females), W=0.039 L^2.64 (males) (Sutton et al., 2010)
Size at Maturity (total length; cm)21.86 (females), 19.0 (males) (Crawford, 1984)
Spawning SeasonJune – October
Spawning LocationFemales are serial spawners and move from shallows to deeper areas of esturaries, and offshore for spawning (Crawford, 1984)
Additional Spawning InformationPelagic eggs
Batch Fecundity (F; number of eggs) to Fork Length (FL; cm)F=-1053.65+85.85L (Crawford, 1984)
Egg Size0.7 – 1.0 mm diameter (Crawford, 1984)
RecruitmentNo-stock recruitment relationship established
Early Life HistoryIncubation 82 – 93 hours; larvae hatch 1.9mm from May – November; larvae planktonic for >30 days until 6mm, then undergo metamorphosis which finishes 65 days post-hatching; settlement inshore occurs late winter – early summer; juveniles live on sand flats in water < 1 m deep (Crawford, 1984)
Gillnet Post Release SurvivalHigh: 96.1% (Lyle et al., 2014)